Comparative Analysis of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of Randomly Selected Branded Sunscreens Manufactured in the Philippines

Jehiel Lyre Malan1 and Philip Sabinay1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology, Philippines


Abstract
UV radiation is a type of radiation emitted by the sun, alongside infrared and visible light. It is used by the body to help mediate natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins used by the body, but excessive UV radiation has adverse effects to the skin, like sunburns (erythema), premature skin aging, photosensitivity, suppression of the immune system, and even skin cancers. With the rise of temperatures due to global warming, demand for sunscreens – cosmetic products used to reduce the amount of UV radiation that reaches the skin – has also risen. Some studies have experimentally measured discrepancies between labeled and measured SPF values for the sunscreens. This study compares the labeled and measured SPF of some of the sunscreens manufactured in the Philippines, and has found major differences between the labeled and measured SPF values of the sunscreens.


Antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of the methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Lansium domesticum seeds

Adriel Noel Andonaque1, Novie Dorado1, Kyle Jeremiah Ledesma1 and Laureen Manalo1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology, Philippines


Abstract
This study intended to conduct a qualitative phytochemical test and an antioxidant assay on Lansium domesticum seeds grown in the Philippines. The seeds were extracted through maceration in methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. The antioxidant activity of the seeds were tested by measuring the absorbance of the free radical, 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) or ABTS through the use of a UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The results were measured in % free radical scavenging activity, using 2% [g/ml] Vitamin C in distilled water as the positive control.


Potential for Biodiesel Production of Selected Seaweed Species from Taklong Island, Guimaras

Lourde Frances Mye Almarza1, Sheena Gatila1 and Norielle Inosanto1
1Philippine Science High School – Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City


Abstract
The total lipid content and fatty acid composition of Dictyota dichotoma, Padina minor, and Sargassum cristaefolium found in Taklong Island, Guimaras were evaluated for their biodiesel potential. The total lipid contents were determined using the Bligh and Dyer method while the fatty acid compositions were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Padina minor (11.00% of its weight(w)) showed the highest total lipid content, followed by Dictyota dichotoma (8.00% w), and the lowest is Sargassum cristaefolium (5.67% w). This study evaluated the lipid content of the species and supported established researches regarding conspecific variations between species. With a total lipid content exceeding 10%, Padina minor may be considered as a suitable candidate for biodiesel production in terms of total lipid content. The assessment of the biodiesel properties of the three seaweed species also passed the European biodiesel standards: EN 14214 and ASTM D6751-02.


Designing of storage units and spider web collectors for Pholcus phalangiodes for the mass production of spider silk

Danella Rose Ampunan1, Ma. Lorraine Placer1, Katrina Robles1, Laureen Manalo1 and Angelo Olvido1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus- Bitoon, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology, Philippines


Abstract
Spider silk has been a subject of interest among many researches due to its remarkable mechanical properties. However, existing methods for the extraction of spider silk can exhaust the silk production of spiders and it takes about a week for some spiders to recover lost silk. The purpose of this study is to design and construct storage units for P. phalangioides which allows the spiders to naturally spin their webs for collection. The storage units are composed of 25 units (five by five), painted black on the interior with proper ventilation and spider silk collectors for each of the units on the base. The spiders were properly fed and hydrated, and the collection of silk was done every five days. The percentages of produced spider silk and collected spider silk were obtained and were evaluated using arbitrary levels: from very low (0 percent) to very high (100 percent). A high production of spider silk with a mean average of 82.00 percent was obtained. The spider silk collectors with a very high efficiency value of 98.083 percent, collected a mean average of 80.25 percent of the total area covered by the silk. Additionally, there was no significant difference between experimental groups as determined by one-way ANOVA (p=0 .121); it proves that every storage unit has equal chance of enabling the spider to yield high production of spider silk. The storage units were conducive environments for the spiders to spin their silk. Mimicking the natural habitat of spiders in order for them to yield high production of spider silk was achieved.


T.E.R.R.A. (The Economical Response to Reduce Air Pollution): A New Device for Facilitating the Sequestration and Mineralization of (CO 2)

Luke Kenneth Gurrea1, Fern Rose Peregrino1, Joachim Regalado1 and Erika Eunice Salvador1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines


Abstract
The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has exceeded the 400 parts per million (ppm) threshold in 2015, making global warming a concerning cause for alarm. To lessen carbon emissions, Nickel Nanoparticles (NiNPs) have been proven to catalyse mineral carbonation in a Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) solution (Bhaduri Siller, 2012). This is seen as a viable method to reduce CO 2 in the atmosphere. However, this technology has not yet beenapplied in an actual device. T.E.R.R.A. (The Economical Response to Reduce Air Pollution) is a device which utilizes the catalytic effect of NiNPs and uses it to lessen the carbon emissions of vehicles. When tested in a laboratory setting, it was found that T.E.R.R.A. was able to sequester 82.5 percent of CO 2 bubbled through. With lower pressure and improvements in the design, it is projected that higher amounts of CO 2 may be sequestered by T.E.R.R.A., deeming it a feasible device for the mitigation of carbon emissions.


The Effect of Plant Spacing on the Voltage Performance of a Shared-Anolyte Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Utilizing Ipomoea aquatica

Hezekiah Antonano1, Vinze Dexler Maniba1, Tiffany Rose Montinola,1 and Erika Eunice Salvador1
1Philippine Science High Schol Western Viasayas Campus – Metropolis Ave, Barangay Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City, 5000 Iloilo


Abstract
Plant Microbial Fuel Cells (P-MFCs) are bio-electrical chemical devices that utilize bacteria in plant rhizodeposits to generate electricity. In order to determine the effect of plant spacing on the voltage output of P-MFCs, shared-anolyte P-MFC system utilizing I. aquatica were designed and constructed. A single shared-anolyte P-MFC contains three P-MFCs connected in series, with all three plants in the same soil. They were three shared-anolyte P-MFC setups, with each setup having a triplicate. The plant spacing of the setups were 5, 7, and 9 cm respectively. According to the results, shared-anolyte P-MFCs with shorter plant spacing produced a greater voltage output. This shows that P-MFCs can be a potential candidate for future power generation, because shorter plant spacing is needed, which means that the space they will take up will be lesser
as well. The actual voltage output of the shared-anolyte P-MFCs is only 20.8%, 19.6%, and 20.9% for the 5, 7, and 9 cm plant spacing setups respectively.


Comparison of Sodium Alginate-Based Slow-Release Beads with Varying Calcium Chloride Concentrations

Kiana Andrea Florentino1, Tea Toni Fleur Santos1 and Cherry Dale Templonuevo1
1Philippine Science High School- Western Visayas Campus – Brgy. Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City


Abstract
Calcium alginate-based slow-release beads have properties which allow them to be used as fertilizer reservoirs. This study aimed to determine whether the varied concentrations of the cross-linking agent, calcium chloride, has any effect on the slow-release rate of the beads in soil application and in water. Three concentrations at (3, 2, and 1 percent w/v) of calcium chloride were tested for UV-vis absorption and soil application, and their slow-release rates were determined. No significant difference was found among the various calcium chloride concentrations in both water and soil application, however the UV-vis spectrophotometry test showed that the 1 percent w/v calcium chloride concentration set-up had the slowest release rate in water.


Verification of antidiabetic potential of Aloe vera: ɑ-amylase inhibitory assay of crude aloe gel and aloe latex with rind extracts

Deanne Alcalde1, Diane May Tajo1 and Dyan Reizl Valencia1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology, Philippines


Abstract
Aloe vera has been known to have antidiabetic potential. Some studies state that aloe vera is antidiabetic because of the aloe latex while some studies state that its antidiabetic property is exhibited by the aloe gel. This study aims to verify whether aloe vera latex with rind and aloe vera gel indeed have antidiabetic potential. This study used the ɑ-amylase assay in which the inhibition of maltose was measured using a spectrophotometer. The results show that both aloe gel and aloe latex with rind extracts have antidiabetic property. It is recommended that active antidiabetic constituents be isolated and undergo further analyses to determine which constituents have better potential to be used for drug development.


Characterization of the Physical Properties of Bacillus thuringiensis Corn husk Fibers through Alkalization

Krizzian Hernando1, Mark Dondy Abayon1, Jio Vinz Sitjar1, Marc Jerome Aguirre1 and Joan Catolico1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines


Abstract
Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) corn husk bers were characterized for possible usage in textile manufacture. The ber yield, diameter and length were determined and compared to that of native sweet corn husks bers Bt corn husks were subjected to alkalization for 60 minutes at 5 g/L and 10 g/L NaOH concentrations. Fibers subjected to 5 g/L and 10 g/L NaOH concentration treatment had a ber yield of 14.69% and 16.74% respectively. The ber diameter and the ber length was greater in the 5 g/L (817.7 m and 11.7 cm) than in the 10 g/L (723.7 m and 5.3 cm) NaOH concentration treatment. Fiber yield was measured using a standard analytical balance. Measurement showed no signicant difference between the two corn species. Diameter of bers was also measured using the Laser Diraction method and also no signicant difference can be observed. The ber length, measured using a Vernier Caliper had a significant difference. Bt corn husk bers do not have an observable advantage over native sweet corn.


Occurrence of Intestinal Helminth Parasites in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris domesticus) in Arevalo, Iloilo City, Philippines Using the Parasep Fecal Parasite Concentration Tenchnique

John Christian Lopez1, Marc Jerome Aguirre1 and Jervin Dalisay1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines


Abstract
This study tested domestic dogs in Arevalo Iloilo City Philippines for the prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites using the parasep fecal parasite concentration technique. The parasites were identified along with the risk factors that accompanied it. Results showed that 21 out 30 dogs were positive for infection with Ancylostoma sp. as the most prevalent species with a prevalence of 30 percent and intensity of 93 eggs per gram. This study concluded that there is an occurrence of intestinal parasitic infection of domestic dogs in Arevalo, Iloilo City, Philippines.