Immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles immersed in Gracilariopsis heteroclada hot-water extract

DOMINIC S. YAP1 , KEISHA CARMELA C. BUNGAY1 , JEM PATRICE B. ALFONSO1 , JULNAFE B. LIBO-ON1 and CHRISTIAN CORDERO2
1Philippine Science High School – Western Visayas Campus, Brgy. Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology – Science Education Institute, Philippines
2Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center – Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines


Abstract
The emergence of diseases such as Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease and White Spot Syndrome has compelled researchers in shrimp aquaculture to develop more innovative methods in improving shrimp health management for the prevention of diseases. One of these methods involves the use of immunostimulants, which enhance the innate immunity of shrimp. Polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds such as Gracilariopsis heteroclada, locally known as “Gulaman”, present a great source of immunostimulants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Gracilariopsis heteroclada as an immunostimulant for Litopenaeus vannamei, or Pacific white shrimp. Hot-water extracts of Gracilariopsis heteroclada were administered through immersion. Results showed no significant changes in total haemocyte count, ambiguous fluctuations in phenoloxidase activity, and a late temporary increase in respiratory burst activity. Overall, these indicate a lack of significant immunostimulation in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles when immersed in Gracilariopsis heteroclada hot-water extract.


Keywords: Gracilariopsis heteroclada, Litopenaeus vannamei, immunostimulants


Piscicidal effects of Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean) seed extracts

APRIL ROSE P. PASQUIN, VENICE EURIKA D. RODRIGO, ADONA BEATRIZ T. VILLALUNA, and ATHENES JOY P. ABAN
Philippine Science High School – Western Visayas Campus, Brgy. Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology – Science Education Institute, Philippines


Abstract
Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean) seeds have been known to contain toxic compounds despite its high nutritional content. Along with the growth in the trend of plant-based pesticides and piscicides, this study was conducted to determine the effects of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extracts on Chanos chanos (milkfish) fingerlings to determine the probability of using it as an effective piscicide. The Chanos chanos fingerlings were subjected to the concentrations of 0.25 milligrams per liter (mg/L), 2.5 mg/L, 25 mg/L and were observed for 96 hours. The 1, 3, and 6-hour median Lethal Concentration (LC50) values for the Chanos chanos fingerlings were calculated to be 2.03 mg/L, 0.25 mg/L, and 0.06 mg/L respectively. There were no calculated LC50 values in the 12 to 96-hour time range due to 100% mortality of the samples. Results showed a significant difference in the mortality rate of the fish subjected under said conditions at 95% confidence interval.

Keywords: piscicidal effects, Chanos chanos fingerlings, Pachyrhizus erosus extracts, piscicide, LC50


Growth performance of Trachinotus blochii (silver pompano) fed with commercial meal substituted with different levels of Moringa oleifera (malunggay) leaf

LADY YZABELLE T. BIRAY, BEZALEEL MANUEL F. MENCHAVEZ, ADRIANE P. ALMAQUER, JULNAFE B. LIBO-ON
Philippine Science High School – Western Visayas Campus, Brgy. Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology – Science Education Institute, Philippines


Abstract
A six-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects in the growth performance of Trachinotus blochii juveniles when fed with commercial meal substituted with different levels of the Moringa oleifera plant. A total of 120 T. blochii juveniles were fed with four varying diets of M. oleifera meal at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% replacement indicating Diets 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Ten juveniles were stocked in a tank of 250 liters each and the diets were replicated three times. At the end of the feeding trial, the growth parameters determined were specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The results clearly showed that T. blochii juveniles fed 5% replacement level of M. oleifera leaf meal was not significantly different with the control indicating that it can replace fish meal at 5% without significantly affecting the growth performance.

Keywords: Trachinotus blochii, Moringa oleifera, growth performance, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR)


Improving the growth of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Cerasiforme) using irradiated carrageenan

SOPHIA THERESE L. PAMATI-AN, CHRISTINE A. MIRAFLORES, JOHN A. HENRY GALINO, and ZENNIFER L. OBERIO
Philippine Science High School – Western Visayas Campus, Brgy. Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology – Science Education Institute, Philippines


Abstract
This study determined the effects of irradiated carrageenan on the plant growth and yield of cherry tomatoes. The irradiated carrageenan solution used in the study was provided by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Irradiated carrageenan (experimental), commercial foliar fertilizer (positive control) and tap water (negative control) were used in foliar spraying the plants. Stem length, stem diameter, leaf area, number of days to flowering, number of days to priming, number of branches and number of harvested fruits were recorded. The diameter, length, and weight of the fruits were also recorded. Plants sprayed with irradiated carrageenan were found to have longer and bigger stems compared to plants in the other setups, more primary branches and number of harvested fruits, and earlier to first priming. Overall, these results indicate that irradiated carrageenan primarily improves the growth of cherry tomatoes during its vegetative state, which could lead to earlier harvests and improved production.

Keywords: cherry tomatoes, plant growth, plant yield, irradiated carrageenan, growth promoters


Pollen sources of Apis mellifera in select apiaries in Molo, Iloilo and Buenavista, Guimaras

VHIDA LYNN B. LAUREA, KIARRA MARI M. JUNTARCIEGO, ZSANELLE L. SERILO, and CATHERINE JOY A. MEDIODIA Philippine Science High School – Western Visayas Campus, Brgy. Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City, 5000, Department of Science and Technology – Science Education Institute, Philippines


Abstract
Pollen is the source of protein and nourishment for bees which plays an important role in brood development, reproduction and colony strength. It may be necessary for honeybees to forage on different plant taxa to obtain essential nutrients for sufficient nutrition. The absence of pollen can affect the strength of the colony and honey production, therefore knowledge of pollen sources is important for the survival of bee colonies, and for beekeepers to create better colony management practices. The study aimed to determine the pollen sources of Apis mellifera in two apiaries in Molo, Iloilo and Buenavista, Guimaras for the months of May, June, and August. The pollen samples were prepared for analysis through acetolysis. Microscopic examination using a compound light microscope with a magnification of 40x – 100x was used to identify the plant sources through image-based classification with measurements. A total of thirteen families were identified which includes Asteraceae, Arecaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Salicaceae and Verbenaceae families.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, pollen, acetolysis, Guimaras, Iloilo


Antifungal Activity of Allium spp. Root Exudates on Spore Germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

ALDREAN PAUL E. ALOGON, JANIEL LLOYD J. HORLADOR, MATT JOSHUA S. MARTINETE, and HAROLD P. MEDIODIA
Philippine Science High School – Western Visayas Campus, Brgy. Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and
Technology – Science Education Institute, , Philippines


Abstract
Allium tuberosum root exudate has been proven to be effective against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in field through crop-rotation, and subsequently in vitro, however is not economically advantageous in the Philippine market because of low consumer demand. The study done aimed to determine the antifungal effect of various Allium species on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical race 4. Root exudates (RE) from Allium species were tested against Foc tropical race 4. Exudates were collected by growing seedlings of each Allium species in 0.05 M CaCl2 solution for 15 days and filtering the solution. Fungal mycelia were inoculated in potato dextrose broth (PDB), placed in a rotary shaker, and filtered and resuspended in PDB, where every 9 mL of the suspension was added 1 mL of treatment. Spore germination ratios in all experimental treatments were significantly lower than that in control distilled water, with Foc spore germination ratios of 54.6%, 54.9%, 58.8%, and 70.9% in chive RE, leek RE, onion RE, and Chinese leek RE, respectively. Thus, the tested Allium species show significant inhibitory effects on spore germination of Foc in the laboratory setting.

Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Allium, spore inhibition, root exudates, germination ratio